Tuina ([tʰwéi.nǎ]; Chinese: 推拿) is a
form of Chinese manipulative therapy often used in conjunction with
acupuncture, moxibustion, fire cupping, Chinese herbalism, tai chi, and qigong.
Tui na is a hands-on body treatment that uses Chinese taoist principles in an
effort to bring the eight principles of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) into
balance. The practitioner may brush, knead, roll, press, and rub the areas
between each of the joints, known as the eight gates, to attempt to open the
body's defensive chi (Wei Qi) and get the energy moving in the meridians and
the muscles. Techniques may be gentle or quite firm. The name comes from two of
the actions: tui means "to push" and na means "to lift and
squeeze." Other strokes include shaking and tapotement. The practitioner
can use range of motion, traction, with the stimulation of acupressure points.
These techniques are claimed to aid in the treatment of both acute and chronic
musculoskeletal conditions, as well as many non-musculoskeletal conditions. As
with many other traditional Chinese medical practices, there are different
schools which vary in their approach to the discipline. It is related also to
Japanese massage or anma.
In ancient China, medical therapy was often classified as
either "external" or "internal" treatment. Tui na was one
of the external methods, thought to be especially suitable for use on the
elderly population and on infants. In modern China, many hospitals include tui
na as a standard aspect of treatment, with specialization for infants, adults,
orthopedics, traumatology, cosmetology, rehabilitation, and sports medicine. In
the West, tui na is taught as a part of the curriculum at some acupuncture
Gua sha (Chinese 刮痧), Literal meaning "scraping
Gua sha (Chinese: 刮痧) is a traditional Chinese medical
treatment in which the skin is scraped to produce light bruising. Guasha stimulates the immune system, detoxifies and de-acidifies, promotes the circulation, regulates functions and organs, removes blockades and pain, revitalizes and regenerates ("life-extension"), diminishes stress, fatigue and burn-out, improves e.g. cures indirectly countless (chronic) disorders and complaints, rebalances emotions, relaxes and promotes clarity of mind...everything through ONE simple treatment It is "replacing" other methods like massage, connective tissue treatment, reflexology, periost massage, acupuncture, moxa, lymph drainage and immune therapy.
In the treatment special oil is put on a particular area of the skin whereafter the therapist starts "scraping" the area with a "scraper" (a specially designed instrument of jade or horn). Very soon the skin becomes red. The amazing thing is, that on places where disorders are hidden, red spots appear IN the skin (not ON the skin) comparable to hemorrhage. Because the scraping is on the oily skin the patient will hardly feel pain - neither during nor after the treatment - the skin will not be damaged, and the red spots will fully disappear within 3 to 7 days.
Gua sha was transferred into Vietnamese from China as cạo
gió, and is very popular in Vietnam. This term translates roughly "to
scrape wind", as in Vietnamese culture "catching a cold" or
fever is often referred to as trúng gió, "to catch wind". The origin
of this term is the Shang Han Lun, a c. 220 CE Chinese Medical text on cold
induced disease - like most Asian countries China's medical sciences were a
profound influence in Vietnam, especially between the 5th and 7th Centuries CE.
Cạo gió is an extremely common remedy in Vietnam and for expatriate Vietnamese.
It is also used in Indonesia, and in Java it is known as
kerikan (lit., "scraping technique") or kerokan, and it is very
widely used, as a form of folk medicine, upon members of individual households.
Gua sha involves repeated pressured strokes over lubricated
skin with a smooth edged instrument. Skin is typically lubricated with massage
oil and commonly a ceramic Chinese soup spoon was used, or a well worn coin,
even honed animal bones, water buffalo horn, or jade. A simple metal cap with a
rounded edge is commonly used.In cases of fatigue from heavy work, a piece of ginger root
soaked in rice wine is sometimes used to rub down the spine from top to bottom.The smooth edge is placed against the oiled skin surface,
pressed down firmly, and then moved down the muscles—hence the term
tribo-effleurage (i.e., friction-stroking)—or along the pathway of the
acupuncture meridians, along the surface of the skin, with each stroke being
about 4–6 inches long.Practitioners tend to follow the tradition they were taught
to obtain sha: typically using either gua sha or fire cupping. The techniques
are sometimes used together.
In China, they are widely available from national
and public hospitals to private massage shops, because of local people's deep
trust to TCM (Traditional Chinese Medicine), they are very popular.
Cupping therapy is an ancient form of alternative medicine
in which a therapist puts special cups on your skin for a few minutes to create
suction to cause local congestion through negative pressure created by
introducing heat or vacuuming the cups. People get it for many purposes,
including to help with pain, inflammation, blood flow, relaxation and
well-being, and as a type of deep-tissue massage.The cupping method has the function of warming and promoting
free flow of qi (chi/biological energy) and blood in the meridians, dispelling
cold dampness, diminishing swellings and pains.
In clinic, the cupping method
is mainly used to treat bi-syndrome caused by wind dampness, such as pain of
the lower back, shoulders, and legs, gastrointestinal disorders such as
stomachache, vomiting, and diarrhea, and the lung diseases such cough and
asthma.The cups may be made of: glass, bamboo, earthenware and silicone.
Cupping therapy might be trendy now, but it’s not new. It
dates back to ancient Egyptian, Chinese, and Middle Eastern cultures.
There are different methods of cupping, including: dry and wet. During both types of cupping, your therapist will put a
flammable substance such as alcohol, herbs, or paper in a cup and set it on
fire. As the fire goes out, he puts the cup upside down on your skin. Or by
using vacuum cups to create vacuum in the cups to sucks the skin and muscles
up.As the air inside the cup cools, it creates a vacuum. This
causes your skin to rise and redden as your blood vessels expand. The cup is
generally left in place for up to 15 minutes.
A more modern version of cupping uses a rubber pump instead
of fire to create the vacuum inside the cup. Sometimes therapists use silicone
cups, which they can move from place to place on your skin for a massage-like
effect.Wet cupping creates a mild suction by leaving a cup in place
for about 3 minutes. The therapist then removes the cup and uses a small
scalpel to make light, tiny cuts on your skin. Next, he or she does a second
suction to draw out a small quantity of blood.
Afterward, you will be told not to take a bath or shower in
the coming two days. Your skin should look normal again within 3-10 days.